Now that we’ve learned more about the heart,
Part 2: Circulation, Arteries and Veins, let’s get into that. Can you tell I like this? I
really do. I learned this at a young age and it stuck with me. This scary guy right here, not Boyd, but this
picture. I noticed Boyd popped up back on to the screen. That could be Boyd though,
he has no hair. The basic structure of the circulatory system, this picture I found and
I wanted to show you because look how vascular your body is. This is just like a basic look.
And that’s why if someone cut you, you bleed because of all that vascular network right
there. It’s amazing, isn’t it? I have put on here: We are very vascular people!
And if you didn’t know this was a neat fact: If all the vessels of this network in your
body were laid end to end, they would extend for about 60,000 miles (more than 96,500 kilometers),
which is far enough to circle the planet Earth more than twice! Can you imagine that? I mean, your body, those
vessels laid out like a rope could circle the planet Earth more than twice! That’s
how vascular, that’s how amazing your vascular system is. Some more information about that: Twenty major
arteries make a path through your tissues, where they branch into smaller vessels called
arterioles. Arterioles, you need to know what those are. The arterioles further branch into
capillaries – you need to know what capillaries are: the true deliverers of oxygen and nutrients
to your cells. So, the exchange of oxygen and the waste coming out of the blood happens
on the capillary level. So, you have artery-arteriole-capillary, venules-veins-heart-lungs, and it makes that
path again and again. Most capillaries are thinner than a hair.
If you can imagine that. In fact, many are so tiny, only one blood cell can move through
them at a time. And you can’t see a blood cell with a human eye. Fascinating. I think
it’s fascinating. Once the capillaries deliver oxygen and nutrients
and pick up carbon dioxide (which we are going to expel through our lungs) and other waste,
they move the blood back through the wider vessels called venules. Then, the venules go into the veins and the
veins deliver the deoxygenated blood through the vena cava (superior and inferior vena
cava) back into the atrium down into the ventricles, then up, whoosh through those pulmonary arteries
because it’s deoxygenated and it goes into the lungs and then it goes back out, picks
up that good oxygen and whoosh back into the heart through the pulmonary veins. This is really small, and I don’t know – I
was going to try to make this bigger, but I don’t know if I can. I’m going to try
here. There are so many fantastic images, you can go to Google images and stuff and
look at the veins and the arteries. Now, I don’t want to say that you have to have
these memorized, but if you know things like the bones and other parts of the body and
organs, chances are you’re going to be able to place them because the names are similar.
So, as we go through some of these, see if they don’t help you by knowing where certain
bones are. I do tell people you need to know the bones. If you’re going to be a good
coder and you don’t want to spend all this time looking stuff up constantly, memorize
the bones and don’t use the bones with the layman’s terms, like shoulder blade makes
your you know scapula, and that your ribs are costal bones, things like that. Occipital-again,
occipital, if you know that area. Let’s go down one side. We’re not going
to read all of these but I’m going to highlight some. We’ve got your carotid arteries. Those
carotid arteries, remember they go up into your neck, and they do those studies to see
if you’ve got blockage there. If you’ve got blockage there, you need to go and have
some work done because you could have a stroke. So, carotid, we know is in the neck. Then
we have subclavian artery, this is a really important artery and one that your collar
bone is called your clavicle; therefore, you’ve got a subclavian, under the clavicle is what
that means. Major artery that runs here. A lot of times when they want to get a lot
of IV bags, fluids, and stuff in to you at once they’ll do a cut down straight under
that collar bone into that subclavian artery and they’ll literally have IV, has all these
little things like that – they’re not this big of course, they’re about this big,
about a hair thing – and they’ll push those in there and will have like five IV
leads that they can hang up and give you tons of stuff at once. So, that is subclavian or
under the clavicle. We’ve got our artery and our pulmonary veins,
all that stuff we just talked about. Now, that aorta, it also runs all the way down
through the thoracic area and then it branches off. This is an abdominal aorta because this
is the abdomen. This celiac, ends up going into like, you’re working with your liver
and stuff like that. Splenic, of course that goes to the spleen. Renal goes to the kidneys. Let’s see, radial. Now, remember you’ve
got your ulna and your radius in your arms. The radius runs off to the thumb, and remember
if you’re going to take somebody’s radial pulse you take it right here, of the thumb;
that’s what you’re feeling is that radial pulse. Palmar is in the hand, because we know
palmar. Digital arteries, because these are your digits when you’re talking of bones
and stuff. Let’s go over to the other side. Facial
arteries, right common carotid – just left and right, it’s bilateral. This brachiocephalic
is this one right here so that the subclavian turns into the brachiocephalic. Then you’ve
got thoracic, which is for the chest. Right coronary, over in the heart. Now this axillary,
if somebody’s going to take your temperature and they say, “Well, let’s take your axillary
temperature,” they’re going to do it under the arm. Right there, axillary, is what that
means. And if you don’t know, if you take a brachial pulse. Let’s see, abdominal aorta,
the common iliac, remember I talked about the iliac crest of the pelvis, and internal
iliac, external iliac?temperature under the arm, you subtract one point.
Let’s see, brachial – right here in the arm, that’s the brachial artery. On little
babies, when you want to check their pulse, you don’t check it in the lower arm, you
take
the Now, this vein right here, very important, you’ll hear a lot about it, the femoral
artery, deep femoral, deep medial circumflex – this little loop right here. But this is
where, if they’re going to do some work on the heart – see how big this is, this pathway
is? A lot of times they’ll go in right here in this femoral artery and they’ll run that
wire, that little camera all the way up through the aorta and down into the heart. It’s
amazing what they can do, pretty cool! But they’ll go from here because this is bigger
vessels if you haven’t noticed. Let’s see, of course, that’s the same
name for your kneecap, patella. You’ve got your tibia and fibula, and everything. This
dorsal pedis, is what they’re doing – remember if you’ve ever seen them touch the top of
somebody’s foot, they want to see if they have good dorsal pulses and the circulation
is getting down to the legs. You’ve had any trauma, or they’re worried about your
heart, or anything. They want to make sure the circulation is getting down to the dorsal
pulses. Do you have to have these memorized? Well,
you can see how the terminology, if you know the bones, then you probably can get by with
knowing a lot of these. I wouldn’t say you have to have it memorized. You probably already
know them and you didn’t even know it, but be very familiar with them because a lot of
diagnoses and locations are said of those names.