Hey everyone, welcome back to our channel. The go to place for information and strategies
on learning disabilities, especially ADHD. (Start slides)
In this video series, we’re sharing some of the potential treatments specialists can
recommend for your child’s ADHD. That way you know what to expect and how to
go about treating ADHD. Specifically, we’re covering exactly how
official and authoritative resources that have actually proven their legitimacy, like:
* the Mayo Clinic * The National Institute of Mental Health
or (NIMH) * The Child Mind Institute
* Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (CHADD)
* WebMD * and the American Psychiatric Association recommend ADHD treatments for Children and
Adults. — These are the exact same resources, Dan Kramarsky, a school administrator for over 30 years and
the lead instructor for our upcoming course on: how to help parents handle the transition
to middle school, for their kids with ADHD. has used to treat his own ADHD, AND that of
his daughter, who is now a successful university student. We know most parents would be happy knowing
their kids will make it through high-school safely, so take Dan as an example case study
and listen closely. —
This series covers 4 standard treatments for ADHD in children including: * Medications: like stimulants, other medications,
and how to give medications safely If you haven’t watched our video about ADHD
Medications yet, click the annotation on your screen and watch that video first. * Behavior therapy: like social skills training
and parent skills training Which is what we will be covering in this
video. * Counseling: like psychotherapy, family therapy,
and lifestyle / home remedies Which is what we’ll cover next. * and Education Services: like school programs,
individualized education programs (IEPs), and 504 plans Which we’ll cover later in this series. — You and your provider should jointly develop
a “treatment plan” that prioritizes and addresses each problem area for your child. These areas can include:
* school challenges * Self-esteem
* anger management issues * co-occurring disorders such as depression
or anxiety * any learning concerns
* and peer and family relationships —
Now, a more comprehensive treatment plan, that really covers all your bases would include
all or some of the following, based on the unique needs of your child: * Learning more about ADHD as a disorder and
its causes * Learning more about diagnosing ADHD and
the potential options for treatment (hopefully we’ve got you covered there)
* Setting up behavioral therapy for your child to help manage his/her behaviors and also
to acquire new skills for handling them autonomously * Understanding the differences between ADHD
medications and prescriptions and how to set up regular monitoring after trying a new medication
* Getting mental health counseling for you, your child, or the whole family to address
things like: relationships, self-esteem, discipline, and other parenting concerns
* Setting up educational program modifications and supports, including 504 Plans, tutoring
and special education programs * And finally, whether you should consider
taking parent training classes or programs from an ADHD coach to address your child’s
behavior both at school and at home. An ADHD coach can also potentially help with
marriage counseling, since we know that, statistically, parents of kids with ADHD are twice as likely
to get a divorce than other parents of neurotypical kids. —
If you would want to set up a comprehensive plan like that, sign up for our upcoming course
taught by Dan and other ADHD experts like, psychiatrists, school psychologists, behavioral
therapists, and ADHD coaches. It’ll help you:
* set up and execute your child’s personalized treatment plan
* better your relationships both at school and at home
* and handle the entire process of transitioning to middle school. Check out the link to the course in the description
below. —
So, treating ADHD often requires medical, educational, behavioral, and psychological
intervention. This comprehensive approach to treatment is
sometimes called “multimodal” because it incorporates so many different modes of
treatment. HOWEVER, although these treatments can relieve
many of the symptoms of ADHD and even improve physical coordination, they do not cure it. While there is no cure for ADHD, currently
available treatments, can help reduce symptoms and improve functioning. Know that it may take some time to determine
what works best for your child. —
Also, as both a medical and health disclaimer, I am not a doctor and this video does not
provide medical or health advice. It is intended for informational purposes
only. It is not a substitute for professional medical
advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Never ignore professional medical advice in
seeking treatment because of something you have heard on this YouTube channel or from
Smart Course as a whole. If you think you may have a medical emergency,
immediately call your doctor or dial 911. ADHD patients’ symptoms vary significantly
so it is extremely important to speak with your physician or medical professional in
order to come up with a tailored approach that works specifically for you and your child. That being said and all things being clear,
let’s go over some of the best information out there. — First, you’re probably watching this video
because you’re wondering, “What is the most effective ADHD treatment?” Well, based on both The Child Mind Institute
and the American Psychiatric Association, research shows that a combined approach of
medication AND behavioral therapy is the most effective treatment. For moderate to severe cases of ADHD the first
line of treatment is usually medication. More specifically ADHD medications called
“psychostimulants”, which increase the amount of certain chemicals in the brain,
help children focus, and curb impulsivity and hyperactivity. Again, if you haven’t watched our video
on ADHD Medications, please click the annotation on your screen and watch that video first. Behavioral therapies, on the other hand, help
kids rein in impulsive behavior and be better organized. In general, more than one intervention is
needed. By working closely with your health care providers
and school personnel, you will be able to find the treatment options that are most suited
to the unique needs of your child and family. Close cooperation among therapists, doctors,
teachers, and parents is therefore very important. —
Potential ADHD Therapies Children with ADHD often benefit from behavior
therapy, social skills training, parent skills training and counseling, which may be provided
by a psychiatrist, psychologist, social worker or other mental health professional. Some children with ADHD may also have other
conditions such as an anxiety disorder or depression. In these cases, counseling may help both ADHD
and the coexisting problem. Examples of therapy include: * Behavior therapy: In which, teachers and
parents can learn behavior-changing strategies, such as token reward systems and timeouts,
for dealing with difficult situations. * Social skills training: Which can help children
learn appropriate social behaviors. * Parenting skills training. This can help parents develop ways to understand
and guide their child’s behavior. * Psychotherapy. This allows older children with ADHD to talk
about issues that bother them, explore negative behavior patterns and learn ways to deal with
their symptoms. * Family therapy. Family therapy can help parents and siblings
deal with the stress of living with someone who has ADHD. The best results occur when a team approach
is used, with teachers, parents, therapists and physicians working together. Educate yourself about ADHD and available
services. Work with your child’s teachers and refer
them to reliable sources of information to support their efforts in the classroom. —
In today’s video, we’re just going to cover behavioral therapies, parenting skills
training, and skills-based training. What is behavioral therapy? Children and adults with ADHD need guidance
and understanding from their parents, families, and teachers to reach their full potential
and to succeed. For school-age children, frustration, blame,
and anger may have built up within a family before a child is diagnosed. Parents and children may need special help
to overcome negative feelings. Mental health professionals can educate parents
about ADHD and how it affects a family. They can also help the child and his or her
parents develop new skills, attitudes, and ways of relating to each other. Behavioral therapy is a type of psychotherapy
that aims to help a person change his or her behavior. It might involve practical assistance, such
as help organizing tasks or completing schoolwork, or working through emotionally difficult events. Behavioral therapy also teaches a person how
to: * monitor one’s own behavior or that of
children * give oneself or children praise or rewards
for acting in a desired way, such as controlling anger or thinking before acting Parents, teachers, and family members can
also give positive or negative feedback for certain behaviors and help establish clear
rules, chore lists, and other structured routines to help a person control his or her behavior. Therapists may also teach children social
skills, such as how to wait their turn, share toys, ask for help, or respond to teasing. Learning to read facial expressions and the
tone of voice in others, and how to respond appropriately can also be part of social skills
training. Therapists can also encourage people with
ADHD to adjust to the life changes that come with treatment, such as thinking before acting,
or resisting the urge to take unnecessary risks. Cognitive behavioral therapy (or CBT) can
teach a person mindfulness techniques, or meditation. This can help a person learn how to be aware
and accepting of one’s own thoughts and feelings to improve focus and concentration. Behavioral Treatments for Kids With ADHD
There are two kinds of behavioral interventions that can help children with ADHD manage their
symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsiveness, and inattention. * Parenting skills training (or behavioral
parent management training) teaches how to give immediate and positive feedback for behaviors
they want to encourage, and ignore or redirect behaviors that they want to discourage. They may also learn to structure situations
in ways that support desired behavior. and learn stress management techniques that
can increase their ability to deal with frustration so that they can respond calmly to their child’s
behavior. * Skills-based Training: teaches children
techniques they can use to stay on top of their schoolwork and manage their responsibilities
at home. This kind of training, which is done by learning
specialists, teaches kids skills to maximize their strengths and compensate for their weaknesses. For example, children who have trouble finishing
things and staying organized can learn techniques for completing tasks, keeping track of assignments,
and getting their schoolwork done. These ADHD therapies don’t affect the core
symptoms, but they teach children skills they can use to control them. Some focus on strategies for staying organized
and focused. Others aim at cutting down on the disruptive
behaviors that can get these children into trouble at school, make it difficult for them
to make friends, and turn family life into a combat zone. Some children, especially those with severe
ADHD symptoms, benefit from behavioral therapy along with medication; for others, the training
may make enough difference to enable them to succeed in school and function well at
home without medication. —
One important reason for kids to participate in behavioral therapy (whether or not they
also take medication) is that ADHD medications stop working when you stop taking them, while
behavioral therapy can teach children skills that will continue to benefit them as they
grow up. —
Parent Training Let’s talk about parent training. Parent training can help reduce behavior problems
that stem from ADHD in children. Parent-child interaction therapy and other
forms of parent training teach parents how to work with their kids to cultivate good
behaviors while minimizing impulsive or inattentive ones. Kids who have been out of control can learn
to rein in their behavior and enjoy more rewarding relationships with parents and teachers when
they are stimulated by more positive reinforcement. It’s called, generally, parent training,
because it involves working with parents and children together. Parent training is not just for children with
ADHD, but since kids with ADHD are often prone to tantrums, defiance, and tuning out parental
instructions, it can substantially improve their lives, and the wellbeing of their whole
families. Although it focuses on interaction with parents,
it’s also been shown to reduce outbursts and other problem behaviors at school, because
the skills kids learn with their parents are transferable to other settings. This kind of training is generally done by
clinical psychologists. —
Different Types of Parent Training There are several kinds of parent training
that have been shown to be effective, including Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), Parent
Management Training (PMT), Positive Parenting Program (Triple P). They all teach parents how to use praise,
or positive reinforcement, more effectively, as well as consistent consequences when kids
don’t comply with instructions. They result in better behavior on the part
of children, decreased arguing and tantrums, better parent-child interactions, and reduced
parental stress. Young children with ADHD often find themselves
scolded or punished much more than they are praised, so a clear way to earn positive attention
from the most important people in their lives can be a big motivator. It’s not unusual for kids who’ve been
negatively affected by their behavior problems—kicked out of preschool, black-listed from play dates—to
make dramatic improvements through parent training. —
Some Parent Training examples: Children who have ADHD tend to benefit from
structure, routines and clear expectations. The American Psychiatric Association states
the following may be helpful: * Make clear schedules and maintain routines. * Make sure instructions are understood – use
simple words and demonstrate. Be clear and consistent. Children with ADHD need consistent rules they
can understand and follow. * Focus on effort and reward good behavior. Give praise or rewards when rules are followed
because kids with ADHD often receive and expect criticism. Look for good behavior, and praise it. * Using a rewards chart at home, as well as
at school, can help motivate kids who are easily distracted and struggle to acquire
new skills. * Focus on your child when talking to him/her. Avoid multitasking. * Supervise. Children with ADHD may require more supervision
than their peers. * Maintain communication with the child’s
teacher. * Try to always model calm behavior. Let’s talk about skills-based training
The other broad area of behavioral help for kids with ADHD includes skills-based interventions
to teach techniques they can use to stay on top of their schoolwork and manage their responsibilities
at home. This kind of training, which is done by learning
specialists, teaches kids skills to maximize their strengths and compensate for their weaknesses. Children with ADHD tend to be weak in what
we call “executive functioning.” Executive functions are the self-regulating
skills that we all use to accomplish tasks, from getting dressed to doing homework. They include:
* Planning * organizing time and materials
* making decisions * shifting from one situation to another
* controlling our emotions * and learning from past mistakes. To bolster kids with weak skills in these
areas, learning specialists teach a mix of specific strategies and alternative learning
styles that complement or enhance a child’s particular abilities. With elementary school children, the learning
specialist usually works with parents and kids together, to establish routines and tools
to use to get work done successfully and with minimal conflict. As children get older, they often begin working
more one-on-one with clinicians to strengthen their organizational skills and develop effective
behavioral plans. When a child is old enough (over the age of
12 or so) cognitive behavioral therapy can help teach children to control their behaviors
by understanding how their thoughts and feelings influence them. For instance:
Young children with ADHD can benefit from systems that encourage positive behavior,
like the “Daily Report Card.” These approaches pinpoint specific goals for
behavior in school, give kids feedback on how they’re doing, and reward them for meeting
those goals successfully. Parents and teachers work together on the
Daily Report Card. Teachers choose goals for an individual child
based on the behaviors that present the biggest challenges for him. Goals might involve academic work (finishing
tasks), behavior towards peers (reducing teasing or fighting) and adherence to classroom rules
(not interrupting, staying in his seat, following instructions). The teacher rates the child’s performance
each day on each goal. He gets a star or a check for each positive
behavior, and if he gets enough during the day, there is a prize for him when he gets
home—coveted screen time or some other small reward. This kind of system can be very helpful for
children from preschool to as old as 12. Checklists:
Checklists can be useful for anything from getting out of the house on time in the morning
to doing homework after school to the bedtime routine. Since the steps necessary for completing a
task often aren’t obvious to kids with ADHD, defining them clearly ahead of time, and posting
them prominently, makes a task less daunting and more achievable. Educational therapists also recommend assigning
a time limit for each step, particularly if it is a bigger, longer-term project. Deadlines can sneak up on all of us, but kids
with ADHD are particularly susceptible to underestimating how long it will take to do
something. Using a planner:
Using a Planner is essential for Kids with ADHD who have what’s called poor working
memory, which means it is hard for them to remember things like homework assignments. It really helps to keep a routine and a schedule. Keep the same routine every day, from wake-up
time to bedtime. Include times for homework, outdoor play,
and indoor activities. Keep the schedule on the refrigerator or on
a bulletin board in the kitchen. And write changes on the schedule as far in
advance as possible. Another example of Skils-Based Training is
Organization Organizing everyday items can really help. * Have a place for everything, clothing, backpacks,
toys, and keep everything in its place. * Use homework and notebook organizers. * Stress to your child the importance of writing
down assignments and bringing home the necessary books. Let’s talk about how skills-based training
helps in school For middle and high school aged students,
educational therapists work with kids to develop systems for tackling the work, both organizationally
and academically. For kids with ADHD, managing their time and
school materials can be a huge issue. For example, they could have a hard time leaving
enough time to study or complete projects, forget to use their planner, or lose track
of assignments. Dr. Michael Rosenthal, a neuropsychologist,
explains that executive functions apply to academics, as well as managing homework. Reading, writing and math all involve skills
kids may be weak in. A middle schooler might be a perfectly fluent
reader, but at the same time have difficulty capturing the point of each paragraph or summarizing
what she’s read. Writing requires organizing thoughts into
a narrative, imagining what the intended audience needs to know, staying on topic, and writing
to a chosen length, all together these can be tough for a student with ADHD. Math requires multi-step operations, and word
problems require extracting the information important to solve the problem. These are all skills that educational therapists
can focus on with children to strengthen their learning strategies. Explain to your kids why this is important
for them While a child is learning new skills, he needs
to understand how they will help him. Dr. Matthew Cruger, director of the Child
Mind Institute’s Learning and Development Center, explains that:
“Kids with attention problems, in particular, are very pragmatic in a way about how much
effort to put into things,” “We think of it as ‘neuroeconomics’
— they save their energy for things they are confident will pay off.” So a good educational therapist will structure
skill building so that kids score successes frequently. Dr. Cruger says “When kids put hard work
into something, they expect a return, and if they don’t see the return, it’s doubly
frustrating,” “They’ll think, ‘You see, it wasn’t a good idea to try.’” The Bottom Line
The frustrating thing about behavioral interventions like parent training and skills-based training
is that they are labor-intensive for parents and teachers, in addition to the kids themselves. Dr. Jill Emanuele, a clinical psychologist
at the Child Mind Institute, warns that “Parents may have the preconception that when they
bring a child for therapy the child is going to be doing the work, but this takes a huge
investment on the part of parents.” On the other hand, she adds, “the training
can be a huge help to parents, too, who often come to us feeling burned out and ineffective
in handling these kids. They develop a lot of confidence.” There is evidence that these parent and teacher-based
interventions improve the outcome for children with ADHD, though they don’t directly affect
symptoms. ADHD specialist Dr. Russell Barkley, explains
that “Ideally, these environmental adjustments will alter the developmental trajectory of
the child or adolescent with ADHD. However, such interventions are not expected
to produce fundamental changes in the underlying deficits of ADHD, rather they only prevent
an accumulation of failures and problems secondary to ADHD.” The strongest gains, Dr. Barkley notes, are
in children who are particularly defiant or oppositional. He says “Researchers and clinicians should
anticipate, that long-term studies are more likely to find treatment effects on problems
secondary to ADHD than on deficits specific to ADHD.” So behavioral therapies can be a huge help
for ADHD and coexisting disorders, but don’t count on them to effectively treat every ADHD
symptom. Teenagers with ADHD
Dr. Barkley also explains that once children with ADHD reach adolescence, there is less
evidence for the effectiveness of behavioral training. Several studies have failed to show results
for cognitive behavioral therapy for teens with ADHD. However, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (or
CBT) does have a role for kids with ADHD who develop secondary problems like conduct disorder
and oppositional defiant disorder (or ODD) Dr. Emanuele agrees in that, since ADHD puts
kids at risk for developing an anxiety or mood disorder, many of them are treated with
CBT for those disorders. In some cases, kids have actually outgrown
their ADHD symptoms but they’re still struggling. —
As a Sidenote, the Mayo Clinic mentions a new medical device
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved a new medical device to treat children with
ADHD who are 7 to 12 years old and not taking ADHD prescription medicine. Only available by prescription, it’s called
the Monarch external Trigeminal Nerve Stimulation (eTNS) System. About the size of a cell phone, the eTNS device
can be used at home under parental supervision, when the child is sleeping. The device generates low-level electrical
stimulation which moves through a wire to a small patch placed on the child’s forehead,
sending signals to areas of the brain related to attention, emotion and behavior. If eTNS is being considered, it’s important
to discuss precautions, expectations and possible side effects. Get complete information and instructions
from your health care professional. —
Now, you know what to expect from specialists in regards to ADHD treatment with behavioral
therapies, but remember that there are many other ways of treating ADHD. We’ve prepared some special offers for you
at the end of this video. But first, To make sure you’re as prepared as you can
be I want you to hit the notification bell below, because in the next video we’ll cover
different counseling options like psychotherapy, family therapy, and lifestyle or home remedies
suggested by: * the Mayo Clinic
* The National Institute of Mental Health or (NIMH)
* The Child Mind Institute * Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity
Disorder (or CHADD) * WebMD
* and the American Psychiatric Association — So, again, hit the notification bell and the
subscribe button under this video if you want to be notified when we publish that video. If you liked this video please don’t forget
to like it, and let us know what you liked or what you’d like to see more of in the
comments below. The more people like, subscribe, click the
bell, and comment, the more people will see this kind of content on YouTube, and we know
some people could really use the help. — Now, for our special offers, join our expert-vetted
newsletter. It’ll be free until October 3rd 2019, so
don’t wait up. Our resources will help you: * find answers to your basic questions about
ADHD * understand why Middle School is so challenging
for students with ADHD​ * and introduce you to ADHD support groups
and other sites to help you meet your child’s needs at school and at home. Visit the links in the description and on
your screen. —
If your child is being treated for ADHD, support groups can help parents and families connect
with others who have similar problems and concerns. Groups often discuss regularly to:
* share frustrations and successes * exchange information about recommended specialists
and strategies * and to talk with ADHD experts You can join our expert-moderated ADHD Education
& Support Group for Parents, where you can get direct help from other parents and experts
with shared experiences. I’ve put the link in the description and
on your screen. —
Now while you’re waiting for our next video, make sure to check out these two videos right
here *point left*: We share tons of expert-vetted resources on
parenting and education for differently-abled kids, just like kids with ADHD, so make sure
to check out these two videos as well. As always, I appreciate you taking the time,
thank you for watching and see you next week!