[ Music ] [Narrator:] Oil is where you find it. And the search for oil is never-ending, constant. It spans the globe,
coating a lake in Venezuela, a desert in Arabia, a Louisiana bayou, or rugged barely-explored Northern
Canada. And you take oil where you find it, hard to live in, hard to breathe in, hard to work in, land. The people of the lands differ. Language, customs,
traditions vary. Neither oil nor the oil-seeker can alter a
culture overnight, yet oil brings change. This is Talara, Peru and so is this. National customs,
when treated with respect and dignity, prove no barrier
to an oil company’s operation. Socially, culturally, man is supremely adaptable. And
physically, there is no great difference between the
American, the Venezuelan, the Peruvian, the Finn, or the Arabian. The crux of the problem is adapting the physically unchanged human being to a physically changed world. This all-important problem–fitting the worker to his
industrial environment–is a prime concern to the
medical department of Jersey Standard. Here at 30 Rockefeller Plaza, headquarters of a
worldwide organization of affiliated companies, one of the most advanced industrial health programs is focused. [Man 1:] All company medical activities are based upon one theory, simply this: A healthy employee is a happy employee. And a happy employee who knows his medical
limitations and who is assigned to a job in keeping with
his abilities to perform is an efficient employee. To assist in the health maintenance of the employee calls for a new interpretation of medicine as applied to the needs of industry. We think of it as a positive program, as an act of cooperation with the employee in maintaining his capacity for a rewarding, healthy life rather than waiting behind a desk, waiting for something to happen to the employee before we do anything. More and more, the doctor in industry will spend his time keeping the fit fit, rather than trying to make the unfit fit. Yes, industry is rapidly changing the environment of man, but man is having trouble adapting
himself satisfactorily. Let’s face it, many of these new industrial
developments have created new medical problems like air pollution, water pollution, high-altitude flying, and
many others. That is why this field of medicine in industry is no longer confined to the plant. Now we are concerned with medical problems
involving all employed individuals. The activities of the doctor in industry are in the neutral
zone between management and labor. His activities
are tremendously varied and numerous. In this industry certainly, with over 500 different occupations, with the health of so many thousands of personnel to consider, the vast distances between installations adds to the complications. To handle this task then, new techniques are needed, with coordination of thought and action among all those who are interested in employee welfare is most essential. We doctors in industry must develop a program
applicable to large installations and small ones, too. Our aim is to give the same sort of service as we have
here at the central office. [Narrator:] To the employees in, say, Hamburg, or Rio de Janeiro, or in New Jersey, and in places where employees are isolated, they must
have medical supervision, too. [ Music ] [Man 1:] Wherever the employee is, the facilities, the care, and the attitudes of those attending him must be tops. And wherever the employee is, the standard of medical supervision must be the same. This, of course, takes planning in a big, total way. In our view, four types of medical practice make up this
total medical program. We’d like to tell you about it. Jersey’s four-part program: preventive medicine,
constructive medicine, educative medicine, and
curative medicine. Now let us examine these, one by one, starting first
with preventive medicine. [Narrator:] The success of preventive medicine is often reflected in a graph, a sliding downward graph. In Venezuela, for example, malaria had always been a
scourge, killing and maiming thousands every year. Now the disease has been eradicated by a positive program of action, worked out by management on the basis of guidance by the doctor in charge. Mosquito-breeding areas were
made target number one. [ Music ] Those who became victims of the disease
were given immediate, efficient, thorough treatment. But the overall emphasis was on prevention rather than cure. And this emphasis paid off in ways far more
important than lines on a graph can show. So successful was the company’s anti-
malarial campaign that in Caripito Hospital, bed space formerly allotted to malarial cases has been converted to doctors’ offices. In Aruba, the major problem was amoebic dysentery. For years, the disease had been endemic in the area. In 1936, the health unit of the company began a concerted attack on amoebic dysentery. New sanitary techniques in the preparation of food were installed and carefully supervised. A boil or open sore can do a lot of damage. Preventive measures, some simple, some more complicated, but the results were dramatic. [Music] Frequency rate of disease dropped sharply. Amoebic dysentery was virtually wiped out. The result, healthier, happier employees in Aruba. [ Music ] In New York, a company employee bound for the Near East visits the health center for immunization shots that will protect him from the diseases prevalent in his destination. Preventive medicine, getting it before it gets you. [ Music ] Periodically, health officers from affiliates located in all corners of the globe meet in New York to discuss new approaches to old problems… new problems constantly arising. Their reports are carefully recorded. Out of these discussions, this exchange of
information, come the dynamics of a modern practical program for disease prevention. To implement the program, the industrial physician works closely with a skilled, efficient team. The industrial hygienist can answer key questions on employee working conditions, location of jobs,
materials handled. The chemist has an important contribution. So has the toxicologist, the nurse, the epidemiologist, the biostatistician, the safety engineer, all of them with heavy responsibilities in the overcoming of industrial problems. But let’s see what happens when this team goes into action. 1942, the year the first commercial unit for fluid catalytic cracking was put into operation by a Jersey Standard affiliate. A heavy fraction from this process contains a hydrocarbon, which under certain conditions, has been found to cause cancer in humans. Question, “Was this heavy fraction a potential cancer hazard?” The answer
had to be found. Representatives of the health unit and management met. The go-ahead was given. Cooperation of outstanding research institutes was asked and given. Experimental animals were painted with oil samples. This investigation and others demonstrated that certain of these heavy fractions, under specific conditions caused cancerous growths on animals. Conclusion: A cancer hazard existed where workers came in contact with these oils. More information was needed. How many men were in contact with these oils? To what degree? At company laboratories, a full-scale attempt was made to eliminate or diminish the possible disease-causing chemical compounds in the oil. Employees exposed to the possible disease-causing oils were examined every three months, and special attention was paid to warts, tumors, and other abnormalities of the skin. In the refinery, lines, tanks and other pieces of
equipment containing the possibly disease-producing
oil were painted orange for identification. Employees were instructed to remove oil from the skin immediately by thorough washing with soap and water. [Music] Protective clothing was provided and required on all jobs where there was possible contact with these oils. As a result of these and other precautions, there have been no cases of skin cancer among workers since this program was established. A potential health problem had been found, investigated, and eliminated by the applications of the techniques of preventive medicine. [ Music ] [Speaker 1:] Planned action in advance, that is the core of preventive medicine. We know too often in large-scale medical work the emphasis is all upon disease while little attention is paid to the individual as a total person. Constructive medicine, the second of a four-part program of constructive health maintenance, tries to avoid this defect. Its major concern is the health of the whole man by adding life to years. Constructive medicine utilizes every facility and judgment at a doctor’s disposal, so that he can detect disease early enough to do something simple and positive about it at a price that the employee can afford to pay. In industry, the cornerstone of constructive medicine is in the concept of the complete health inventory medical examination. [Narrator:] The inventory medical examination is a total evaluation of the individual’s health. This employee has been with the company for 15 years. He is now taking his eighth periodic physical. The examination includes a psychological evaluation of the individual. How about the job? Is he up to it? If he isn’t, not only the job will suffer, but more important, the man’s health will begin to break down. Thus, psychologically and physically, the total medical inventory is evaluated. The examinations are voluntary. No employee is forced to take them, and for those who
do, the examination results are confidential, strictly
between the employee and the physician. Days later, physician and employee discuss the
findings. Advice is given for correcting existing defects
and, if necessary, a private physician is recommended. Whether for the executive at a desk or
a man in the field, constructive medicine helps the
employee understand his capacity for achievement. It is imperative for every individual to know what his health potential is. That’s why all employees, wherever
they are, whatever their job, are encouraged to visit the health center whenever they want to. Today, through any one of the many health centers of Jersey or its affiliates, employees come for periodic physical inventories, willingly, gladly. At times, an employee will come in with a health problem that worries her deeply, affects her work, her enjoyment of living. A complete inventory will help get to the root of the trouble, which at times is minor, sometimes could be serious if not
attended to. But it is attended to. The examination is thorough. The facts are obtained. And arrangements are made to forward her complete medical file to the physician of her choice. If hospitalization is required, the cost will be covered by
her health insurance. And the company will see to it
that she suffers no loss of pay. [Music] Ten days later, the employee comes back to the
company health center for a checkup. The problem
was not dodged. It was met and resolved early so that the employee
can now lead a happier, fuller life, the end purpose of
constructive medicine. [Dance music ] Not all the time is the story a pleasant one. At times,
an employee will report to the health unit with a specific
complaint. Her profile revealed she had not reported at regular intervals for a periodic checkup. The receptionist makes arrangements for the woman
to receive a complete physical examination. The examination reveals a serious condition which
should’ve been checked long before. Immediate hospitalization is suggested, but though everything possible will be done for her, the probability is that the
corrective action will be too late. [Speaker 1:] There is only one answer to the tragedy of a person who dies because of medical action called for too late. That is education. The spreading of accurate information about the constructive, positive approach of modern medicine as applied to the medical needs of industry. When the employee understands that the idea of going to a doctor only when you feel sick is as extinct as the
hoop skirt… when the concept of the medical inventory is thoroughly grasped by medical men as well as laymen, only then the benefits will be felt by everybody. That is the reason behind the third phase of a modern
constructive health maintenance program for industry. This phase can be described as educative medicine. First of all, it involves extensive training of doctors, nurses, and other medical personnel within Jersey Standard and its affiliated companies. [Narrator:] To the home headquarters each year come company doctors from all over the world. It is a give-and-take relationship, a free discussion of problems, an exchange of information among doctors who have specialized in medicine as applied to the needs of industry. Forums are conducted on specific medical problems
of industry, as here, the problems of alcoholism. The individual doctors observe, and later on their comments will be asked for, their frank comments,
because educative medicine is a two-way street. [Music] Often, it is not possible or practical for the doctors and
nurses of every affiliate to visit the home headquarters.
So, the home headquarters will visit the affiliate. [ Music ] Mutual problems are discussed. The on-the-spot
situation is reviewed. Everywhere within the organization of affiliated
companies, as here in Venezuela, the training of nurses is never neglected, for a
competent staff of nurses and technicians is a must. Medical students, the doctors of tomorrow, are invited at company expense for a program of discussion,
meetings, and visits to various facilities. Public and private health agencies are continually made aware of the work of the health units. Under the educative phase of the program, employees
come to understand their physical makeup and their
limitations. The employee suddenly stricken with stomach cramps
will pass up the home remedy, and if the condition
continues, he will check it with a doctor. The wife of an employee who suffers a heart attack
knows immediately what to do: Stay put and call a
doctor. It is in instances like these that educative medicine
proves its worth. [Speaker 1:] The fourth phase of a modern constructive health maintenance program for industry is one which
is very often over emphasized, the curative phase. All too often, clinical facilities have been set up by
companies for the sole purpose of taking care of a
medical emergency after it occurs. This is unfair, not only to the employee but to the
company concerned as well. It is strictly a case of
locking the barn door after the horse has been stolen. But this is not to say that medicine as applied to the needs of modern industry should ignore the best facilities and procedures available to deal with accidents and emergencies as they occur. Far from it. [ Music ] [Narrator:] This is an emergency. [ Music ] Back at the health unit, the man’s leg is x-rayed. Emergency care is given to ease the pain, to start the
healing process on its way. The employee has a badly sprained ankle. The patient’s personal physician is notified and
arrangements are made for hospitalization in
accordance with his wishes. Once the elementary curative care is started, the
burden of care must fall on the individual employee, who receives a full report to turn over to his own private
physician. Good health is not a gift. It is a personal responsibility
which must be worked for. The employee has help in this search for good health.
He has the help of management, a progressive
management which has set up a positive, vigorous medical program with adequate facilities and personnel at every installation to carry out the four-part program for better health: preventive medicine, constructive medicine, educative
medicine, curative medicine. [Music] Today, medical teamwork, intelligent planning, are helping the worker to achieve better health and a happier life. The employee gains. Management gains. This, then, is the reward of a positive program for industrial health. [ Music ]